A small club of big consultancies has a monopoly on servicing EU bailouts, posing questions on transparency and conflict of interest.
The 2012 request is somewhat ironic, considering that it has since emerged some car companies themselves have misled the public about how their cars' emissions filters worked.
British leader Theresa May has said free movement of EU workers to Britain cannot continue as in the past, while visiting Slovakia and Poland on Thursday.
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Slovenia is paying consultancies over €21 million to test its banks in controversial contracts classed as military secrets.
An Italian judge has convicted Deutsche Bank of fraud, amid widening probes on tax evasion and rate-fixing.
"You will be surprised in the autumn by the degree of movement that will have taken place in some member states," says Thomas Wieser, one of the economists preparing plans for banking union ahead of the October EU summit.
The European Central Bank is an important firefighter in the euro-crisis. But increasingly divergent eurozone economies are limiting the effects of its policies and democratic scrutiny remains an issue.
Concern over democratic oversight of the EU's bailout funds has led to six constitutional complaints in Germany and outrage in the European Parliament.
A lobby for the world's biggest banks - the International Institute of Finance - became a key EU player when it negotiated the debt cut on Greece's second bailout. Its world of rented castles and sopranos shows losses were bearable.
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