Monday

5th Dec 2022

Poland tries to appease EU critics before Nato summit

  • The Polish parliament is working day and night on the bill reforming the constitutional court, so that it can be adopted on Thursday. (Photo: Krzysztof Białoskórski/Sejm)

The Polish parliament is expected to pass on Thursday (7 July) a bill that the ruling Law and Justice (PiS) party says will alleviate EU concerns over the rule of law in the country.

”We all want to solve the problem of the constitutional court,” prime minister Beata Szydlo said on Wednesday.

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  • ”We all want to solve the problem of the constitutional court,” Prime minister Szydlo (r) said, also referring to EU commissioner Timmermans (l). (Photo: Polish Prime Minister's Office)

She said she hoped that opposition groups in Poland and the EU institutions in Brussels shared this view.

The constitutional dispute erupted last year when PiS tried to appoint loyalist judges to the Constitutional Tribunal and passed laws that critics says paralysed its work.

The court ruled that the reforms were unconstitutional, but the government refused to recognise the decision.

The European Commission in January launched an investigation into rule of law in Poland, leading to back-and-forth statements by both sides.

The EU executive stepped up the procedure on 1 June by sending an opinion detailing its concerns to Poland’s government.

Its text is confidential, but vice-president Frans Timmermans explained that the institution remained concerned over the appointment of judges, respect for court rulings and the court's effectiveness to review new legislation.

The draft PiS bill relaxes some of the party’s previous demands, for instance on the quorum of judges needed to take a decision.

But it says the tribunal must fully include the PiS-loyal judges in its work and that the tribunal’s earlier verdict, on the illegality of PiS intrusions into its work, should go in the bin.

The bill is likely to be adopted as PiS holds a majority in the Sejm, the Polish parliament.

Polish media reported that PiS wanted to pass the bill so as to please US president Barack Obama before a Nato summit that starts in Warsaw on Friday.

Problems of secrecy

The rapporteur, PiS MP Bartlomiej Wroblewski, told this website that the European Commission's opinion was “not without significance” in the process.

He added, however, that he hadn’t seen the text because it wasn't forwarded to the Sejm.

PiS critics told EUobserver they did not see the point of being kept in the dark by the EU executive.

”We can’t be sure the government acts on the promises made to the Commission,” an NGO, the Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights, said.

”We can’t table amendments to address the Commission’s concerns,” an opposition MP, Ryszard Petru, added.

A ‘made-up’ process?

During the past months, PiS representatives said they will hold talks with Brussels but also questioned the real reasons behind the EU’s involvement.

Wroblewski told EUobserver he feared the Commission didn’t know the details of Polish politics and had been too quick to pass judgement.

PiS MEP Tomasz Poreba told this website the government felt it had been singled out unfairly. He said that his colleagues in the European Parliament vehemently attacked PiS, but ”not because they care about Poland”.

”They are just trying to support their allies in the Polish opposition,” the MEP said, referring to the centre-right Civic Platform and the liberal Modern parties.

”This conflict is the opposition’s only fuel,” he added. ”They have no ideas for Poland's future ... they tabled maybe three own proposals under the current mandate."

Poreba also challenged the legality of the commission probe.

The EU Council's own legal service has argued that EU treaties don't empower institutions to create a rule-of-law supervision mechanism.

The legal service recommended that the rule of law should be monitored by peer reviews in the Council instead.

”The Commission tries to build itself a position at the expense of other institutions,” Poreba said.

PiS party leader Jaroslaw Kaczynski warned in May that PiS would challenge the procedure in the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) if things ”got fierce”.

But a legal challenge brought by the Polish government would likely fail, as ECJ only reviews conformity with legally binding EU acts, while the rule-of-law opinion is of a non-binding nature.

Leonard Besselink, a professor of constitutional law at Amsterdam university, told this website that he disagreed with the legal service and thought the Commission had the right to issue opinions under the EU treaty.

He noted that the legal service did not necessarily represent the Council, where member states sit, and that the Commission had developed the rule-of-law mechanism at the request of EU capitals.

But he said the treaty didn't give the Commission right to take punitive action.

A high-ranking Polish diplomat also doubted the Commission would take further steps, such as recommending that Poland should lose voting rights in the Council.

”The Commission has stopped putting pressure on the government lately,” the diplomat told EUobserver on Wednesday.

Beyond the commission’s instrument

Sophie in ’t Veld, a Dutch liberal MEP, told this website it's "unfortunate that the Commission procedure doesn’t seem to work”.

She said that the Polish effort to adopt a law at odds with EU expectations was an ”act of defiance” to EU authority.

In ’t Veld is steering a report on ways to strengthen EU monitoring of the rule of law through the European Parliament and said she hoped to work with the Slovak EU presidency to create a more effective instrument.

Analysis

EU still shy of 'nuclear option' on values

The EU commission has moved forward with its rule-of-law probe on Poland, but critics say that a better framework is needed to uphold values.

Polish leaders play down EU 'opinion'

The foreign minister has not read the EU Commission's report on the rule of law, and other party figures say it will change nothing.

Nato makes show of solidarity in Poland

Warsaw city centre is closed to traffic, while police sirens wail back and forth and helicopters criss-cross the sky ahead of a Nato summit on how to deter Russian aggression.

Nato's Russia-deterrent takes shape in Warsaw

Canada, Germany, the UK and the US to take the lead in defending Europe from potential Russian aggression. France to also send troops, despite saying Russia is its "partner".

Poland may remove constitutional judges

Amid a long-lasting dispute over the functioning of Poland's constitutional court, a senior Law and Justice MP suggests removing judges who obstruct parliament.

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Over the last 10 years, Portugal has given 1,470 golden visas to people originating from countries whose tax-transparency practices the EU finds problematic. But unlike common practice in other EU states with similar programmes, Portugal has not implemented "due diligence".

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