Monday

26th Aug 2019

Top EU banks guilty of multi-billion tax fraud

  • Spain's top lender accused by German prosecutor of "severe tax evasion" (Photo: Can Pac Swire)

Tax-scams operated by the EU's top banks cost treasuries €55.2bn, a cross-border investigation has shown.

The scams, dubbed "the biggest tax robbery in European history", involved Deutsche Bank and Santander - the largest lenders in Germany and Spain.

Read and decide

Join EUobserver today

Support quality EU news

Get instant access to all articles — and 18 year's of archives. 30 days free trial.

... or join as a group

  • Deutsche Bank also handled billions of illicit Russian funds (Photo: Bjoern Laczay)

They also involved Germany's Commerzbank, Hypovereinsbank, Landesbanken, and Warburg Bank, British lender Barclays, French bank BNP Paribas, and global banks JPMorgan, Meryll Lynch, Morgan Stanley, and UBS.

The scams worked via so-called "cum-ex" buying of shares and bonds.

The latin term, which means "with-without", is jargon for a kind of trade that enables banks to conceal the identities of their clients.

This, in turn, helps the clients to claim false, double, or multiple tax rebates on capital gains tax paid on the anonymous trades.

The fraud cost German taxpayers €31.8bn between 2001 and 2016, the investigation estimated. It cost France €17bn, Italy €4.5bn, and Denmark €1.7bn. It also harmed Austria, Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, and Spain.

News of the problem first came to light in Germany in 2016.

But its full scale was exposed by a cross-border investigation, involving 19 media in 12 countries, which consulted more than 180,000 pages of documents, including letters from German prosecutors, and which published its findings on Thursday (18 October).

"This is the biggest tax robbery in European history," Christoph Spengel, a tax expert at the University of Mannheim in Germany, told German newspaper Zeit.

The news comes on the heels of revelations that Denmark's top lender, Danske Bank, perpetrated the biggest money-laundering scandal in European history.

The Danish bank funnelled some €200bn of "suspicious" Russian money into other jurisdictions via Estonia, that investigation showed.

Deutsche Bank previously admitted to handling some €10bn of illicit Russian trades.

The bank sector's disgrace did not stop EU leaders, at a summit in Brussels also on Thursday, from agreeing to go ahead with a banking union.

"Everyone is determined to put a package on the table by the December summit that describes the banking union of the future and also says something about the roadmap - i.e. the way to a deposit guarantee and describes progress on the capital markets union," German chancellor Angela Merkel said after the meeting.

The union would create a more stable regulatory environment, she said.

But the Danske Bank scandal has prompted debate on the merits of the EU scheme in Denmark.

The money-laundering case "makes the need to probe what we might get from being in the banking union even stronger," Danish finance minister Kristian Jensen said on Friday.

"We haven't made up our minds about all the positives and negatives of the banking union yet," he said.

The opposition Social Democrats party said there was nothing in the EU "package" that would prevent the kind of abuses perpetrated by the Danish lender.

"Money laundering transcends borders. The Danske Bank scandal is enormous, but in reality it's a symptom of more widespread problems with international money flows," the Social Democrats' financial spokesman, Benny Engelbrecht, said.

The cum-ex investigation also showed that tax information exchange between EU states did nothing to prevent the multi-billion euro fraud.

It disclosed a letter from the prosecutor in Cologne, Germany, to Santander, which said it was suspected of having "planned and executed trades" that facilitated "severe tax evasion".

It also showed that German tax inspectors had raided the homes of Warburg Bank chiefs.

Most of the banks denied wrongdoing.

"In matters of morality, M.M. Warburg & Co ... has no blame," it said. Santander said only that it was "fully cooperating" with German authorities.

The cum-ex scheme was masterminded by Hanno Berger, a former German tax inspector, who now lives in Switzerland.

He told the Reuters news agency that he first gave his idea to Australian bank Macqaurie (also involved in the scams), but that the whole trick was based on a legitimate loophole in tax laws.

"They [the German state] cannot punish others for their mistakes," he said.

News in Brief

  1. Ocean Viking to disembark in Malta after ordeal
  2. Germany joins France in world outcry on Brazil fires
  3. British people lose faith in Brexit deal
  4. Brexit hardliners want further changes to EU deal
  5. German manufacturers confirm fear of recession
  6. Belgian socialists and liberals scrap over EU post
  7. Fall in EU migration leading to UK skills shortages
  8. Switzerland makes post-Brexit flight preparations

Opinion

Why von der Leyen must put rights at core of business

Ursula von der Leyen's in-tray must include those European executives on trial for systematic workplace harassment, the break-up of European slavery rings, and allegations of European companies' abuse in palm oil, including child labour, land grabs, and deforestation.

Stakeholders' Highlights

  1. UNESDAUNESDA reduces added sugars 11.9% between 2015-2017
  2. International Partnership for Human RightsEU-Uzbekistan Human Rights Dialogue: EU to raise key fundamental rights issues
  3. Nordic Council of MinistersNo evidence that social media are harmful to young people
  4. Nordic Council of MinistersCanada to host the joint Nordic cultural initiative 2021
  5. Vote for the EU Sutainable Energy AwardsCast your vote for your favourite EUSEW Award finalist. You choose the winner of 2019 Citizen’s Award.
  6. Nordic Council of MinistersEducation gets refugees into work
  7. Counter BalanceSign the petition to help reform the EU’s Bank
  8. UNICEFChild rights organisations encourage candidates for EU elections to become Child Rights Champions
  9. UNESDAUNESDA Outlines 2019-2024 Aspirations: Sustainability, Responsibility, Competitiveness
  10. Counter BalanceRecord citizens’ input to EU bank’s consultation calls on EIB to abandon fossil fuels
  11. International Partnership for Human RightsAnnual EU-Turkmenistan Human Rights Dialogue takes place in Ashgabat
  12. Nordic Council of MinistersNew campaign: spot, capture and share Traces of North

Latest News

  1. Spain heading for yet another general election
  2. EU to discuss Brazil beef ban over Amazon fires
  3. 'Our house is burning,' Macron says on Amazon fires
  4. What happens when trafficking survivors get home
  5. EU states and Russia clash on truth of WW2 pact
  6. EU considers new rules on facial recognition
  7. EU to pledge Africa security funds at G7 summit
  8. Letter from the EESC on per diem article

Stakeholders' Highlights

  1. Nordic Council of MinistersLeading Nordic candidates go head-to-head in EU election debate
  2. Nordic Council of MinistersNew Secretary General: Nordic co-operation must benefit everybody
  3. Platform for Peace and JusticeMEP Kati Piri: “Our red line on Turkey has been crossed”
  4. UNICEF2018 deadliest year yet for children in Syria as war enters 9th year
  5. Nordic Council of MinistersNordic commitment to driving global gender equality
  6. International Partnership for Human RightsMeet your defender: Rasul Jafarov leading human rights defender from Azerbaijan
  7. UNICEFUNICEF Hosts MEPs in Jordan Ahead of Brussels Conference on the Future of Syria
  8. Nordic Council of MinistersNordic talks on parental leave at the UN
  9. International Partnership for Human RightsTrial of Chechen prisoner of conscience and human rights activist Oyub Titiev continues.
  10. Nordic Council of MinistersNordic food policy inspires India to be a sustainable superpower
  11. Nordic Council of MinistersMilestone for Nordic-Baltic e-ID
  12. Counter BalanceEU bank urged to free itself from fossil fuels and take climate leadership

Join EUobserver

Support quality EU news

Join us