Brussels seeks powers to put polluters in jail
The European Commission is ready to move into national governments' criminal law, proposing to harmonise what constitutes serious environmental crimes and what the minimum level of penalties should be across the EU.
The draft paper – to be introduced on Thursday (8 February) and seen by EUobserver – calls for "more dissuasive sanctions for environmentally harmful activities, which typically cause or are likely to cause substantial damage to the air, soil, water, animals or plants".
Dear EUobserver reader
Subscribe now for unrestricted access to EUobserver.
Sign up for 30 days' free trial, no obligation. Full subscription only 15 € / month or 150 € / year.
- Unlimited access on desktop and mobile
- All premium articles, analysis, commentary and investigations
- EUobserver archives
EUobserver is the only independent news media covering EU affairs in Brussels and all 28 member states.
♡ We value your support.
If you already have an account click here to login.
Brussels lists nine sets of offences, such as unlawful treatment of waste or unlawful possession of protected wild plants and animals, that should be considered criminal throughout Europe, with possible punishment ranging from one to ten years' imprisonment.
The paper also states when and to what extent companies could be held liable for environmental offences, with fines between €300,000 and €1.5 million being suggested.
It is the second time in the EU's legal history that Brussels proposes that national governments will no longer have the full sovereign right to decide what constitutes a crime and what the punishment should be.
The first precedent dates back to May 2006 when common rules on counterfeiting were tabled by Brussels' executive body.
Brussels' move into criminal matters was triggered by a landmark ruling on environmental crimes by the European Court of Justice in September 2005, which gave Brussels power to introduce harmonized criminal laws across the EU.
The court stated that it is up to the Commission to decide on penal measures in order to make community legislation effective.
"The court strengthened the possibilities to enforce the law, once member states have agreed on a European policy. This is a watershed decision", commission president Jose Manuel Barroso said in reaction to the September ruling.
By contrast, many EU members vigorously oppose any intrusion into criminal law by the commission, arguing that criminal sanctions should be a national matter only.
In this week's piece of legislation, to be introduced by commissioners Franco Frattini (justice and home affairs) and Stavros Dimas (environment), the European Commission argues that environment protection should be adressed through action at EU level.
"Environmental crime usually has cross-border implications, as it often involves trans-boundary activities and often has transboundary effects such as the resulting pollution of the environment", the paper states.
No action or non-binding initiatives by Brussels "would not tackle the problem effectively because perpetrators can easily benefit from the existing differences in national legislation," according to the document.