Thursday

22nd Feb 2024

Opinion

Why so few women in EU missions?

The proportion of women in leadership positions is only a small aspect of the question of how to increase the influence and significance of women in the field of peace and security - but it is a very visible one and therefore an important symbol.

As of Wednesday (1 July), Germany assumed the presidency of the Council of the European Union. As chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel will be chairing the council's meetings.

Read and decide

Join EUobserver today

Get the EU news that really matters

Instant access to all articles — and 20 years of archives. 14-day free trial.

... or subscribe as a group

She is only the seventh woman to do so.

Looking at the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the EU and its missions, it is striking that its focus has so far been quite limited when it comes to the visibility and promotion of women.

This is the only explanation for the fact that in 2020 there is no woman leading any of the current eleven European civilian missions (let alone one of the six military operations).

In general, only six of all the civilian missions so far have been led by a woman - but 64 by a man.

Women are also clearly underrepresented as deputy heads of mission - in only three of the 11 civilian missions (namely, EU Capacity Building Sahel Niger, European Union Police Mission for the Palestinian Territories and the European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia) are women currently appointed as deputies.

Two of them are German.

In November 2018, the EU published the civilian CSDP compact. One of its aims is to increase the proportion of women at all levels of EU missions.

However, since the compact is to be implemented at the national level, each EU state can decide for itself what exactly better representation means - and not all member states seem very interested in having more women in crisis management missions.

The United Nations is in a better position compared to the EU: in the current list of UN leaders in peace operations and special envoys, a third of the leadership positions are held by women, and half of the deputy leadership positions – in fact, a woman leads a predominantly military peace operation in Cyprus.

This is mainly possible because the UN secretary-general already announced in his inaugural address in December 2016 that at the end of his term of office half of all senior positions (including special representatives and mission heads) would be filled by women.

UN action vs EU inaction?

October marks the 20th anniversary of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 "Women, Peace and Security" (WPS).

For the first time, a resolution called for the protection of women's rights in conflicts and the equal involvement of women in peace negotiations, conflict transformation and reconstruction.

This anniversary offers an opportunity to reflect on the extent to which women have actually been included in foreign and security policy ever since.

Looking at the CSDP, there is clearly a great deal of catching up to do, at least in terms of personnel policy.

Not only is there a lack of female personnel at the management level, the proportion of women in civilian crisis management missions of the EU must be further increased overall.

The proportion of women in such missions currently remains at very low 25 percent. With a share of 29 percent, Germany is only in the middle of the field. Sweden with 39 percent and Finland with 42 percent are performing much better.

With non-uniformed civilian personnel, Germany is in the top group with 41 percent women.

The lack of women in missions, especially in leadership positions, can often be explained by a lack of political will. As long as EU states propose almost exclusively men for such posts, there will be no significant improvement.

How about if EU states, in line with UN policy, announce that by 2025 (the 25th anniversary of resolution 1325) gender parity will be achieved in the leadership of CSDP missions?

Suitable female candidates could be found for the next top level vacancies in 2020 and 2021.

The high number of women in top positions in UN peacekeeping missions - some of them, incidentally, European women - clearly shows that there are enough suitable candidates. Of course, resolution 1325 is about more than just women in leadership positions.

However, representation at the executive level is an important aspect in order to ensure that the voice of women is included in decision-making processes. It is crucial to take the experience of women at all levels seriously and include women in all areas of foreign policy.

Author bio

Patricia Kruse works for the director of the Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF), where Tobias Pietz is the deputy head of the analysis division.

Disclaimer

The views expressed in this opinion piece are the author's, not those of EUobserver.

Eminent women appeal for EU help on Palestine

West Bank annexation "was conceived almost entirely by men" and will crush the "dignity and rights" of Palestinian women still further, a group of 40 women leaders have said.

Women hit hardest by corona economic crisis

While women are in the frontline on fighting the pandemic, they are also exposed more to the economic crisis that will follow. The pay gap could also grow. More security for flexible jobs, and investment in care work, could help.

Let's put women in charge of peace talks

We need a more meaningful representation of women in EU institutions and on EU's negotiation tables abroad. The most successful EU deal in the last years, the Iran deal, was brokered by women – Frederica Mogherini and Helga Schmid.

Why aren't EU's CSDP missions working?

The EU deploys thousands of advisers to its missions abroad. Without addressing reform as a profoundly political struggle, however, the EU will remain successful only in operational advisory and trainings.

I'm an 'election observer' - but what do we actually do?

There is a persistent problem of 'fake observers.' Often the government of the country they are observing, or even the election management body itself, pays for these observers, holds fancy dinners, and puts them in five-star hotels.

Feature

Can Eastern European countries lead way for female politicians?

From Estonia to Moldova and from Slovakia to Georgia, the wider region of eastern Europe is increasing its number of female heads of state and prime ministers, seeing more women occupying the highest echelons of national politics.

EU-Israel trade agreement must be on table to stop Rafah attack

The EU-Israel association trade agreement enabled €46.8bn of trade last year. Exports rose for both parties by around 20 percent in 2022. As the bloc's foreign affairs chief Josep Borrell said: "Yes, we have the capacity to influence [Israel]."

Latest News

  1. EU auditors: rule-of-law budget protections only partial success
  2. EU's €723bn Covid recovery fund saw growth, but doubts remain
  3. Von der Leyen rejects extremist parties, leaves door open to ECR
  4. Russian oligarchs failed to get off EU blacklist
  5. Podcast: Navalny, Ian Bremmer and "more Europe"
  6. Only Palestinians paying thousands of dollars leave Gaza
  7. Ukraine refugees want to return home — but how?
  8. African leaders unveil continent-wide plan to buy medicines

Stakeholders' Highlights

  1. Nordic Council of MinistersJoin the Nordic Food Systems Takeover at COP28
  2. Nordic Council of MinistersHow women and men are affected differently by climate policy
  3. Nordic Council of MinistersArtist Jessie Kleemann at Nordic pavilion during UN climate summit COP28
  4. Nordic Council of MinistersCOP28: Gathering Nordic and global experts to put food and health on the agenda
  5. Friedrich Naumann FoundationPoems of Liberty – Call for Submission “Human Rights in Inhume War”: 250€ honorary fee for selected poems
  6. World BankWorld Bank report: How to create a future where the rewards of technology benefit all levels of society?

Stakeholders' Highlights

  1. Georgia Ministry of Foreign AffairsThis autumn Europalia arts festival is all about GEORGIA!
  2. UNOPSFostering health system resilience in fragile and conflict-affected countries
  3. European Citizen's InitiativeThe European Commission launches the ‘ImagineEU’ competition for secondary school students in the EU.
  4. Nordic Council of MinistersThe Nordic Region is stepping up its efforts to reduce food waste
  5. UNOPSUNOPS begins works under EU-funded project to repair schools in Ukraine
  6. Georgia Ministry of Foreign AffairsGeorgia effectively prevents sanctions evasion against Russia – confirm EU, UK, USA

Join EUobserver

EU news that matters

Join us