Thursday

22nd Feb 2018

Analysis

Romania: Will strong words be enough?

  • Romanian protesters in front of the EU commission last week asked for democracy to be restored (Photo: EUobserver)

European Commission president Jose Manuel Barroso has condemned the Romanian government for undermining trust in the rule of law but the strong words belie the fact that Brussels has few enforcing powers in this area.

"In every member state of the European Union we need a well-functioning judicial system and respect for democratic institutions and the rule of law. Events in Romania have shaken our trust," Barroso said Wednesday (18 July).

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One commissioner has admitted to being "shocked" by the cavalier attitude of Romanian politicians when explaining to EU officials the role of the country's highest court.

In recent weeks, Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta, a social democrat, has ignored the rulings of the constitutional court, fired the ombudsman and moved to impeach the president.

Brussels responded by demanding Ponta implement an 11-point to-do list to restore proper rule of law to the country.

Ponta acquiesced in a letter but the commission is now waiting to see if he follows through on his promises.

The commission has few weapons in its armoury, however.

Romania, like Bulgaria, has been under extra political surveillance since it joined the EU five years ago. Progress in the two countries' fight against corruption is summarised in an annual report.

Each year the EU grumbles about the number of reforms that still need to be carried out. But while the reports always make the headlines in the countries, EU officials admit they have little leverage over countries once they are member states.

Compliance with the so-called Cooperation and Verification Mechanism is a political exercise. The commission cannot bring Romania to court for ignoring it.

Similarly, Ponta's compliance with the commission's wishes will be set out in a detailed, but political, report at the end of the year.

At the other end of the scale is the possibility to suspend Romania's voting rights. Usually referred to as the 'nuclear option', Article 7 remains an untested part of the Lisbon Treaty. There is reluctance to use it because it is such as powerful sanction.

Justice commissioner Viviane Reding mentioned the possibility to her colleagues during Wednesday's discussion on Romania noting that if the report fails to bring about concrete changes, Article 7 is the only option left.

This is the second time the EU finds itself discussing a member states' apparent abuse of democracy this year. Hungary was strongly criticised in Spring for introducing laws that undermined the judiciary.

Possible use of article 7 was raised then too. But one member state diplomat remarked at the time: "This is not a weapon to use too early, otherwise what is left?"

The same diplomat also noted the difficulty in getting consensus on the issue. National politicians are conscious that opening scrutiny of one country could lead to unwanted scrutiny of their own domestic foibles.

The commission tends to muddle through.

During the height of Brussels' spat with Hungary, Reding and her digital agenda colleague Neelie Kroes complained publicly about media law and the organisation of the judiciary in Hungary. These are both areas where the EU has no powers.

In Romania's case it is hoping that ordinary citizens' fatigue with corruption and a wish to join the EU's passport-free zone - technically not linked but now politically entwined - will be enough to persuade Ponta's government to move in the direction the commission wants.

Romanian government downplays EU to-do list

The Romanian government has downplayed the urgency of list of measures demanded by the EU commission as it seeks to restore confidence in the country's rule of law and avoid political sanctions.

EU commission still 'very worried' about Romanian democracy

EU justice commissioner Viviane Reding on Wednesday said she remains "very much worried" about the state of democracy in Romania. Meanwhile, there is intense political infighting in Romania ahead of Sunday's impeachment referendum.

Romanians prepare for divisive referendum

The Romanian government's campaign ahead of a referendum on Sunday on removing the president from office resembles a personal vendetta, amid EU worries about democracy eroding rapidly in the country.

Poland shows no sign of concessions to Commission

While the dialogue between Warsaw and the Commission has improved since new prime minister Mateusz Morawiecki entered office, there is no sign of compromise over rule of law concerns - as the clock ticks towards a March deadline.

Corruption report: Hungary gets worse, Italy makes progress

Italians, Czechs and Latvians perceive less corruption than a few years ago in Transparency International's annual ranking. The Berlin-based NGO said Finland was a 'worrying case', whilst Bulgaria - which holds the EU presidency - is EU's most corrupt.

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