Saturday

21st Apr 2018

Feature

'Everybody thinks Europe is a Christian continent'

  • Blue Mosque: 'It is not fair to take Iran or Saudi Arabia as the example of all Islam' (Photo: stefanku)

EU institutions do not do God. But for some religious leaders in EU-aspirant countries, member states' Christian origins are still important.

The morning call to prayer at the Blue Mosque in Istanbul means different things to different people.

Thank you for reading EUobserver!

Subscribe now for a 30 day free trial.

  1. €150 per year
  2. or €15 per month
  3. Cancel anytime

EUobserver is an independent, not-for-profit news organization that publishes daily news reports, analysis, and investigations from Brussels and the EU member states. We are an indispensable news source for anyone who wants to know what is going on in the EU.

We are mainly funded by advertising and subscription revenues. As advertising revenues are falling fast, we depend on subscription revenues to support our journalism.

For group, corporate or student subscriptions, please contact us. See also our full Terms of Use.

If you already have an account click here to login.

For Muslims, it is an invitation to muster spiritual energy for the working day. For some Western visitors it is a sign that they are on the edge of an exotic world.

Given regular news about Islamic extremism - Spain recently charged two terrorism suspects, Denmark charged four Muslims for plotting to murder a cartoonist - it is a world that many see as hostile to the West.

Meanwhile, the voice among the Blue Mosque minarets often belongs to Metin Balci.

When EUobserver spoke to the muezzin and imam at the famous site in a recent interview, he said what some Turkish diplomats privately believe: EU opposition to Turkish membership is based, in part, on Islamophobia.

"What we hear and what they are telling us is that they are not a Christian club. But if you look at their approach to us, then we see and we feel that it is such a club," Balci said.

The imam's view of EU-Turkey relations is of two competing civilisations trying to come together.

He noted that Islamic societies in medieval times led Europe in terms of science, women's rights and personal hygiene.

"The West has the power now. But the history of the world is not 100 years. It is a longer span. Things change ... I believe that Islam in the future can take the lead once again," he said.

He added that EU countries, which lecture Turkey about values, have no moral superiority because colonialists in modern times pillaged Africa and the Middle East.

Quoting South Africa's bishop Desmond Tutu, he said: "When missionaries came to Africa they had the Bible and we had the land. They said, 'Let us pray.' We closed our eyes. When we opened them we had the Bible and they had the land."

Balci's idea of a "Christian club" is anathema to EU policy.

Despite Vatican lobbying, the EU Treaty does not mention the word "Christian" on any of its 403 pages.

It begins by saying the Union "[draws] inspiration from the cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe." Later on, it says that any "European state" can join.

When asked by this website what "European" means, the European Commission said it means respect for "universal" values, such as "democracy, equality and the rule of law."

The EU is already home to 13 million Muslims, over 1 million Jews and 370 million people who tell pollsters they are Christian.

Apart from Turkey, two other majority Muslim places - Albania and Kosovo - are in line to join.

For rabbi David Rosen, a leading Jewish thinker, EU countries really have left the past behind.

Referring to a 17th century accord between Catholic and Protestant countries, he told this website in a written note in July: "The treaty of Westphalia and the adaptation of Christianity to a world in which a particular denomination did not have absolute power, and ultimately its ability to see this as good for its own needs, facilitated acculturation to diversity, individuality."

Clash of civilisations?

Rosen believes there is no clash of civilisations, but that there is a clash between antiquity and modernity.

"It is ... between the enlightened (who embrace the good things of modernity - science, individual autonomy, human rights) and the reactionary (who feel threatened by those things). The enlightened are those who do not claim a monopoly on truth and the reactionary are those that do," he said.

"Muslims from 'Europeanized' (e.g. Balkan) societies, which can even include some Arab societies (e.g. the educated elite in Morocco), are able to be part of European society as well as anyone else," he added.

Balci is not alone in thinking the Union is more Christian than it says, however.

Bishop Hovakim Manukyan, an ecumenical officer at the Armenian Apostolic Church, told EUobserver in an interview in May: "With all due respect to the strong presence of Muslims in Europe, I think every single person in Europe thinks that Europe is a Christian continent, not Muslim."

Contrasting Armenia to Azerbaijan and Turkey, he said: "We are also Christian and we have much more in common [with EU member states]. I would say the same about our Christian neighbour Georgia."

He noted that the old Armenian-Turkish conflict still has religious overtones.

When Armenians last year sang mass in Akdamar, in eastern Turkey, Manukyan said that Turkish Muslims held a ritual "against" them in an old Armenian church-turned-mosque in Ani to show who is boss.

The bishop added that Armenian communities in, say, Belgium or France have "fully assimilated," while Muslims are "a challenge" in terms of integration.

Putting aside terrorism, day-to-day Islamic antipathy toward the West is on show in the heart of the EU - a recent film by a British student in the EU capital documented insults hurled mostly by Arab men at skirt-wearing women in the street.

One EU security expert told this website that the Grand Mosque in the Parc Cinquantenaire in Brussels, next door to the European Commission headquarters, "has some of the most radical preachers you will hear anywhere in Europe."

And just a few hours by plane from Belgium - in Egypt, Iraq and Syria - the clock is turning backward on the EU's post-modern values.

The US invasion of Iraq and the Arab Spring prompted fresh waves of sectarian violence in the home of the world's oldest Christian, Muslim and Jewish communities.

Up to 1 million Iraqi Christians have fled the country since the fall of Saddam Hussein. Dozens of Egyptian Copts have been killed since the fall of Hosni Mubarak.

Israel's ethnic cleansing of Palestine also acts as a "lightning conductor" - in Rosen's phrase - for anti-Western feeling.

'Enlightened' Islam

Going back to Balci in the Blue Mosque, the imam voiced the kind of "enlightened" ideas which Rosen spoke of.

Balci said Turks want to join the EU for the sake of good governance.

"I trust the EU will make decisions about Turkey according to its democratic rules ... We would like to join the Union not because we want its money or its technology, but because we would like to have the same democratic system," he said.

He noted that Muslim societies have their own enlightenment, however.

Contrasting Islam's culture of family values to the EU's economic rat-race, he said: "We have things to take from Europe and things to give to Europe. Europe needs more humanity ... Western technology has put a man on the moon. But nobody goes upstairs to the top floor to visit their sick neighbour, to ask if they're OK."

He challenged people who say Islam breeds terrorism and puts down women.

"Whoever thinks this should read more history ... It is not fair to take Iran or Saudi Arabia as the example of all Islam or of all Arab lands," he said.

On the Danish cartoon controversy, he said newspapers were wrong back in 2005 to insult Muslim sensibility by publishing images of Mohammed.

But he added that Muslims were wrong to react with anger.

He noted that Islam follows the teachings of Jewish and Christian "prophets" - such as Moses, Abraham and Jesus - as well as Mohammed. He quoted Jesus in saying that Muslims should have "turned the other cheek."

When asked by EUobserver what he feels when he sings the morning call to prayer, he showed again his gentle side.

"Mostly, I feel sleepy," Balci said.

Dutch coalition to target burqas, Muslim immigration

Anti-Islamic politician Geert Wilders has emerged triumphant in Dutch coalition talks, with the new government to introduce a bill on banning the Muslim face veil and to try to halve the number of "non-Western" immigrants in the country.

Analysis

Beyond macho: Turkish-EU ties

Turkey has belittled the EU in a week of macho posturing, but strategic relations go deeper than the rhetoric.

EU tells Moldova it is still corrupt

In an annual progress report, European Commission says "independence of justice, law enforcement as well as national anti-corruption authorities need substantial improvement".

Opinion

Appeasement will not work with Erdogan

As EU leaders Donald Tusk and Jean-Claude Juncker meet president Recep Tayyip Erdogan in Bulgaria, their reluctance to use their diminishing leverage with Ankara means his dismantling of Turkey's democracy only speeds up.

News in Brief

  1. Audit office: Brexit 'divorce' bill could be billions higher
  2. MEPs urge better protection for journalists
  3. Dieselgate: MEPs back greater role for EU in car approvals
  4. European parliament adopts new organic farming rules
  5. EU granted protection to half million people in 2017
  6. Report: Facebook to carve 1.5bn users out of EU privacy law
  7. Greek court ruling permits migrants to travel to mainland
  8. Commonwealth summit hopes for trade boost after Brexit

Stakeholders' Highlights

  1. Nordic Council of MinistersWorld's Energy Ministers to Meet in Oresund in May to Discuss Green Energy
  2. ILGA EuropeParabéns! Portugal Votes to Respect the Rights of Trans and Intersex People
  3. Mission of China to the EUJobs, Energy, Steel: Government Work Report Sets China's Targets
  4. Martens CentreJoin Us at NET@WORK2018 Featuring Debates on Migration, Foreign Policy, Populism & Disinformation
  5. European Jewish CongressKantor Center Annual Report on Antisemitism Worldwide - The Year the Mask Came Off
  6. UNICEFCalls for the Protection of Children in the Gaza Strip
  7. Mission of China to the EUForeign Minister Wang Yi Highlights Importance of China-EU Relations
  8. Nordic Council of MinistersImmigration and Integration in the Nordic Region - Getting the Facts Straight
  9. Macedonian Human Rights MovementMacedonians in Bulgaria Demand to End the Anti-Macedonian Name Negotiations
  10. Counter BalanceThe EIB Needs to Lead by Example on Tax Justice
  11. ILGA EuropeTrans People in Sweden to be Paid Compensation for Forced Sterilisation
  12. International Partnership for Human RightsThe Danger of Standing Up for Justice and Rights in Central Asia

Latest News

  1. ECJ ruling set to end 10-year 'mouth tobacco' lobbying saga
  2. Whistleblowers, Syria and digital revolution This WEEK
  3. MEP friendship groups offer 'backdoor' for pariah regimes
  4. Macron and Merkel pledge euro reform
  5. Obscurity surrounds EU military fund's expert groups
  6. New EU party finance rules short circuit accountability
  7. Draghi to stay in secretive 'lobby' group
  8. Bulgaria offers lesson in tackling radical-right populists

Stakeholders' Highlights

  1. Mission of China to the EUChina and EU Must Work Together to Promote Global Steel Sector
  2. Swedish EnterprisesEU Tax Proposal on Digital Services Causes Concern for Small Exporting Economies
  3. Europea Jewish CongressCondemns the Horrific Murder of Holocaust Survivor Mireille Knoll in Paris
  4. Mission of China to the EUAn Open China Will Foster a World-Class Business Environment
  5. ECR GroupAn Opportunity to Help Shape a Better Future for Europe
  6. Counter BalanceControversial Turkish Azerbaijani Gas Pipeline Gets Major EU Loan
  7. World VisionSyria’s Children ‘At Risk of Never Fully Recovering', New Study Finds
  8. Macedonian Human Rights MovementMeets with US Congress Member to Denounce Anti-Macedonian Name Negotiations
  9. Martens CentreEuropean Defence Union: Time to Aim High?
  10. UNESDAWatch UNESDA’s President Toast Its 60th Anniversary Year
  11. AJC Transatlantic InstituteAJC Condemns MEP Ana Gomes’s Anti-Semitic Remark, Calls for Disciplinary Action
  12. EPSUEU Commissioners Deny 9.8 Million Workers Legal Minimum Standards on Information Rights

Stakeholders' Highlights

  1. ACCAAppropriate Risk Management is Crucial for Effective Strategic Leadership
  2. EPSUWill the Circular Economy be an Economy With no Workers?
  3. European Jewish CongressThe 2018 European Medal of Tolerance Goes to Prince Albert II of Monaco
  4. FiscalNoteGlobal Policy Trends: What to Watch in 2018
  5. Human Rights and Democracy NetworkPromoting Human Rights and Democracy in the Next Eu Multiannual Financial Framework
  6. Mission of China to the EUDigital Cooperation a Priority for China-EU Relations
  7. ECTACompetition must prevail in the quest for telecoms investment
  8. European Friends of ArmeniaTaking Stock of 30 Years of EU Policy on the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: How Can the EU Contribute to Peace?
  9. ILGA EuropeCongratulations Finland!
  10. UNICEFCyclone Season Looms Over 720,000 Rohingya Children in Myanmar & Bangladesh
  11. European Gaming & Betting AssociationEU Court: EU Commission Correct to Issue Guidelines for Online Gambling Services
  12. Mission of China to the EUChina Hopes for More Exchanges With Nordic, Baltic Countries