Wednesday

14th Nov 2018

Internal EU report exposes Libya turmoil

  • Libya has around 1,500 militias. (Photo: Al Jazeera)

An internal report from the EU's border mission for Libya provides a bleak account of the country's misfortunes, casting a long shadow over EU aims to control its migration flows towards Italy.

The assessment broadly echoes statements made by the UN's Libya envoy, Martin Kobler, who told BBC Newshour over the weekend that efforts to deliver services to Libyans "is getting from bad to worse."

Read and decide

Join EUobserver today

Support quality EU news

Get instant access to all articles — and 18 year's of archives. 30 days free trial.

... or join as a group

Kobler's comments follow the EU's announcement last month to channel some €200 million into Libya-centric migration and border projects throughout much of north Africa.

It is not yet clear how much of that budget will go to the UN-backed Government of National Accord (GNA) in Tripoli.

An European Commission official said on Monday (20 February) that they are still in the "identification phase".

With over 180,000 disembarking from the Libyan coast last year to reach Italy, the EU and its leadership are largely seeking to offload the problem onto the war-torn country.

Border management

The EU wants to manage the flows through the southern Libyan border and within its territorial waters by working with Libyan authorities.

Libyan border management and migration is carried out by the ministry of the interior, the minister of defence, and the ministry of finance.

The ministry of the interior is riddled with "militias and religiously motivated stakeholders," notes the report.

The ministry of defence "has little or no control of the Armed Forces."

It also oversees a land border guard force composed of 18,000 soldiers. Loyalties are mostly aligned with local battalions or other larger militias.

The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya was also unable to gather insights into the ministry of finance "pending further research."

Of the 49,000 working for all three institutions, no more than one third are thought to be trained professionals.

The headquarters of the department inside the ministry of the interior charged with securing border crossing points is occupied by a militia.

Another department at the same ministry, in charge of 'combating illegal migration', oversees some 20 detention centres. Militia members count among its staff.

Other centres are run by armed groups, local community or tribal councils, criminals, or smugglers.

Libya has around 1,500 different militias.

"The trafficking of migrants for organs has also been reported," notes the report.

Widespread insecurity

Big issues over security also remain, with carjackings and shootings in broad daylight that are reportedly common in the capital.

The report states that human rights defenders, journalists, and judges are the target of assassinations.

People who object to certain views are killed either by government forces or armed groups and this is "tolerated by the government."

Women won't approach the police out of a fear that "they could be murdered or raped".

The situation with security is bad enough that the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNCHR) doesn't send international staff.

The main police force in Tripoli is mostly composed of "legalised" armed groups.

The criminal justice system has collapsed, with prosecutors and their staff becoming the target of threats and killings across Libya.

The Libyan National Police "is dysfunctional, understaffed and under-equipped".

A warlord and a prime minister

The issue has pushed Libya's prime minister Fayez al-Sarraj to ask for Nato's help to rebuild its defence and security institutions.

Sarraj's rival, a Russian-backed warlord by the name of general Khalifa Haftar, commands an army composed of militias and former units from the Gaddafi-era.

Haftar's role has also unsettled EU foreign ministers with Malta's government telling reporters in January that his advances towards Tripoli could trigger another civil war.

Haftar has so far refused to meet with the UN.

Asked if the EU has made any direct contact with Haftar, an EU commission spokesperson declined to comment.

Instead, the spokesperson repeated statements made by the EU's foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini earlier this month that the EU supported efforts "to facilitate dialogue" between Sarraj and Haftar.

"I won't go further than that," said the commission representative.

Malta raises alarm on Russia in Libya

A Russian-backed warlord could start a “civil war” in Libya, increasing refugee flows to Europe, Malta, the new EU presidency, has said.

Most Libya migrants not headed to EU, aid group says

The International Organisation for Migration interviewed thousands of migrants in Libya last year. It found that 60 percent did not want to go to Europe, but had aimed to remain and find work in Libya.

EU brushes off UN criticism of Libya policy

The European Commission is becoming more defensive of its policies following a string of criticisms from NGOs and the UN's high commissioner for human rights.

Mali blames West for chaos in Libya

Mali's foreign minister Abdoulaye Diop told the EU in Brussels that the lack of vision and planning following the Nato-led bombing campaign in Libya helped trigger the current migration and security crisis.

News in Brief

  1. EU's Tusk is Poland's most trusted politician
  2. Finland prepares to step in for Romania on EU presidency
  3. Trump threatens tariffs on EU wine
  4. US defence chief backs Nato amid 'EU army' calls
  5. Italy defies EU deadline on changing budget
  6. Report: FBI looking into Brexiteers Farage and Banks
  7. Italian journalist unions protest 5MS 'whores' jibe
  8. Czech PM's son alleges kidnap plot against his father

Stakeholders' Highlights

  1. NORDIC COUNCIL OF MINISTERSTheresa May: “We will not be turning our backs on the Nordic region”
  2. International Partnership for Human RightsOpen letter to Emmanuel Macron ahead of Uzbek president's visit
  3. International Partnership for Human RightsRaising key human rights concerns during visit of Turkmenistan's foreign minister
  4. NORDIC COUNCIL OF MINISTERSState of the Nordic Region presented in Brussels
  5. NORDIC COUNCIL OF MINISTERSThe vital bioeconomy. New issue of “Sustainable Growth the Nordic Way” out now
  6. NORDIC COUNCIL OF MINISTERSThe Nordic gender effect goes international
  7. NORDIC COUNCIL OF MINISTERSPaula Lehtomaki from Finland elected as the Council's first female Secretary General
  8. NORDIC COUNCIL OF MINISTERSNordic design sets the stage at COP24, running a competition for sustainable chairs.
  9. Counter BalanceIn Kenya, a motorway funded by the European Investment Bank runs over roadside dwellers
  10. ACCACompany Law Package: Making the Best of Digital and Cross Border Mobility,
  11. International Partnership for Human RightsCivil Society Worried About Shortcomings in EU-Kyrgyzstan Human Rights Dialogue
  12. UNESDAThe European Soft Drinks Industry Supports over 1.7 Million Jobs

Latest News

  1. Knives out on all sides for draft Brexit deal
  2. Romania data chief defends forcing press to reveal sources
  3. EU to review animal welfare strategy
  4. Macron's 'European army': why is everyone talking about it?
  5. Merkel calls for 'real, true' EU army
  6. Italy defiant on budget on eve of EU deadline
  7. EU action on Hungary and Poland drowns in procedure
  8. EU unable to fully trace €1bn spent on refugees in Turkey

Stakeholders' Highlights

  1. Mission of China to the EUJointly Building Belt and Road Initiative Leads to a Better Future for All
  2. International Partnership for Human RightsCivil society asks PACE to appoint Rapporteur to probe issue of political prisoners in Azerbaijan
  3. ACCASocial Mobility – How Can We Increase Opportunities Through Training and Education?
  4. Nordic Council of MinistersEnergy Solutions for a Greener Tomorrow
  5. UNICEFWhat Kind of Europe Do Children Want? Unicef & Eurochild Launch Survey on the Europe Kids Want
  6. Nordic Council of MinistersNordic Countries Take a Stand for Climate-Smart Energy Solutions
  7. Mission of China to the EUChina: Work Together for a Better Globalisation
  8. Nordic Council of MinistersNordics Could Be First Carbon-Negative Region in World
  9. European Federation of Allergy and AirwaysLife Is Possible for Patients with Severe Asthma
  10. PKEE - Polish Energy AssociationCommon-Sense Approach Needed for EU Energy Reform
  11. Nordic Council of MinistersNordic Region to Lead in Developing and Rolling Out 5G Network
  12. Mission of China to the EUChina-EU Economic and Trade Relations Enjoy a Bright Future

Join EUobserver

Support quality EU news

Join us